Personalized Medicine

“Individualized or personalized medicine provides a genomic blueprint to determine each person’s unique disease susceptibility, define preventive measures and enable targeted therapies to promote wellness.” (Mayo Clinic)

 

Attacking fronts in personalized medicine (Mayo Clinic):

  1. Pharmacogenomics
    • studies patient response to drugs, induced by the genetic profile of the individual
    • correlates gene expression or(?) SNPs with the effect of administering a specific drug
    • aim is to develop a systematic means to optimize drug therapy, w.r.t the genotype of the patient, to ensure maximum efficacy with minimal adverse effects (wiki)
  2. Clinomics
    • aims at developing relevant tests for patient care, based on the analysis of integrated data from different -omics together with the patient’s clinical data(Mayo)
    • is a collaboration between physicians, genetic counselors, laboratorians, bioinformaticians and bioethicists
    • works on next-gen sequencing, whole-exome/genome sequencing data (Mayo), mRNA, metabolites and proteins (wiki)
    • includes translational research — transforms scientific discoveries arising from laboratory, clinical, or population studies into clinical applications to reduce cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality. (TRWG)
  3. Biomarker discovery (wiki)
    • discover new biological process patterns at the molecular level, be it normal process, pathogenic or pharmacological response to treatment
    • relies on the assessment of measurable characteristics s.a. the concentration of certain molecules(e.g. blood test), measurement of certain activity(e.g. electric activity at the brain level), etc.
    • in Europe – Biomarkers for patient stratification
  4. Epigenomics (wiki)
    • analyze the genomic landscape at the global level, in search for modification which cannot be attributed to DNA alteration at the primary level and which will cause phenotipic plasticity at the cell level
    • due to variations in cell gene expression, induced by the so far identified mechanisms of DNA methylation and histone modification
    • uses techniques s.a. ChIP-Seq, ChIP- Chip, DNA Methylation/Histone modification assays
  5. Microbiome (wiki)
    • explores a new source of phenotypic information, provided by genomic studies on entire communities of microbes which exist within an organism, in symbiosis with it – the forgotten organ

Resources:

For more related topics follow -> Personalized medicine lecture biochem2013

For more related topics follow -> Personalized medicine from Michel Dumontier

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